Then we share the so-called vices of the speech, taken from the book The manual of academic writing. Total guide.

Amphibology

Vice of the word, clause or way of speaking of double meaning that leads to two or more interpretations. As the language in academic or scientific documents should be concise, clear and precise, the use of ambiguous statements constitutes an incorrect use of discourse when introducing conceptual imprecision in articles and products derived from scientific or technological research. However, amphibology is also a rhetorical figure that can be used correctly in some works of literature, as an important resource in accordance with the proposed objective; it is the case, for example, of the humorous texts, of the jokes, of many riddles, etc.

Barbarism

Linguistic incorrectness that consists of speaking or writing badly the words making inappropriate use of the terms or resorting to foreign words not incorporated into the language or that have been Castilianized in another way. Hence, it is best to go to the dictionaries of the language (not necessary and only the Drae). However, in many cases the words that are sought are not found, so it is convenient to resort to the technolects (v.Glossary) accepted by the discipline on which it is written. “Etymologically, the term” barbarism “refers to foreign words that […] are not assimilated to our language or are assimilated incorrectly. However, only lexical forms that are defective from a phonetic or graphic point of view are considered barbarisms “(GarcĂ­a Negroni, 2006: 413). Examples: stalking (by stalking), stalking (by stalking), aerodynamics or areodynamics (by aerodynamics), antiayer (by the day before), libido (by libido or by livid), digression (by digression).

Impropriety

As the Dictionary of the English language says, “Lack of ownership in the use of words”. This error is committed when terms are used with a meaning different from the one that corresponds.

Pleonasm

With regard to scientific texts, it is a vice when resorting to “Demeaning or vicious redundancy of words” (RAE, 2001), that is, terms that mean the same as the previous one are used, apparently explanatory, but unnecessary for a good reader Examples: to myself it seems to me … very wonderful picture, the human person has a great brain … yesterday we went outside and got wet … I have a son of mine studying music. The correct locutions would be, respectively: I think … wonderful picture, the person has a great brain, yesterday we went out and got wet … I have a son studying music.

If you want more information about the most used academic texts, citations, references, author’s rights, norms and styles, and basic writing guidelines, the academic writing manual.

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